PROJECT WITH BROOKINGS: The One Percent Problem: Muslims in the West and the Rise of the New Populists
REPORT: The New Right: Austria’s Freedom Party and changing perceptions of Islam Farid Hafez, Reinhard Heinisch, and Eric Miklin Wednesday, July 24, 2019 –>DOWNLOAD
FINE-GRAINED, DYNAMIC, CONTEXT-SENSITIVE AND FORWARD-LOOKING RESPONSE TO THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF POPULIST MOVEMENTS (PACE)
The rise and growth of parties and movements that claim to speak and act in the name of the „ordinary people“ and challenge and attack the liberal elite as being corrupt could be observed in most parts of Europe. This set of idea surrounding this antagonism between people and elite can be summarized under the term „populism“, which quickly became a frequently used buzzword in both media and academics.
The EU Horizon 2020 project „Populism and Civic Engagement“ (PaCE) aims at understanding and addressing causes, characteristics and consequences of the current rise of populist parties and movements in Europe, to develop instruments to tackle the negative tendencies of rising populism.
The project involves nine partners from all across Europe and runs from February 2019 until January 2022. Its objectives are (1) to trace the historical growth and political consequences of illiberal, nativist and anti-democratic populist parties for the European Union (EU) project and democracy, (2) to study the general and specific causes for these three modes of populism in European democracies, distinguishing between demand and supply side as well as internal and external causes, (3) to study, propose and test policy-oriented responses to each of the three modes of populism, (4) to identify strategies to strengthen democratic values and practices taking into account the role of traditional and social media as well as public opinion and (5) to engage with stakeholders, especially groups underrepresented in public affairs, such as younger citizens and include schools and local communities in order to apply particular findings of the project.
Therefore, in a first step, the type, growth and consequences of the different populist parties in Europe are being investigated in general as well as linked to their particular contexts and characteristics. From there, causes for the appearance and growth of populist parties are being established and the challenges for liberal democracy will be identified. Here, it has to be differentiated between internal and external causes of the rise and growth of populist parties and attitudes and it has to be accounted for the particular structures of the demand and the supply side. This will be analysed using statistical and simulation approaches. After having built a solid associative framework, policy-oriented responses to different forms of populism are being proposed and tested. Also, risk-analyses for the particular responses will be run applying an agent-based simulation of political processes that will include political attitudes and contextual factors in order to test the causes and the proposed responses to populism. The project applies modern methods from computational social sciences, such as agent-based policy simulation to be able to find and address variation in context and type of populism.
In addition to the analytical work and throughout the project, the partners will directly engage with citizens and policy actors, especially with groups that are underrepresented in public affairs, such as younger citizens in order to establish a link to educators and other practitioners to take the research forward into practice and therefore increasing the impact of PaCE’s outputs and simultaneously evaluate them in the form of practical application. A further aim of integrating citizens and policy actors into the work of the project is to help strengthening democratic values and practices, especially in the context of schools. For policy-makers, the output of the project in the form of policy recommendations can be helpful, as risk factors related to populism will be identified and are to be mitigated in the arena of politics, which can in turn lead to a more stable, inclusive and resilient society.
The project intends to undertake a quantitative cross-national study of the successes of Eurosceptic political parties in Central and East Europe (CEE). It approaches this question in a novel way by exploiting systematic but unexplained attitudinal differences between mass publics in the CEE states and Western Europe. In doing so, it addresses empirically one of the central questions of contemporary European politics, the perception of European integration and the causes of the growing disenchantment in a part of the European public. As this issue routinely receives considerable public attention, the research proposed here reaches far beyond narrow academic concerns. If Eurosceptic parties succeed in constraining the integration process this has significant political, economic, and social consequences. The multidisciplinary aspect is taken into consideration through the fact that Euroscepticism has been approached from various scholarly traditions, which informs this research and is the center of two conferences/workshops organized in the context of this project. This applies especially to philosophy, sociology, communication sciences, economics, and law.
The research project „Muslim Youth Movements in Europe: Mobilization and Identity Construction“, which is scheduled from October 2014 to September 2017, aims to explore multi-ethnic, Muslim youth movements in Austria and Germany. The objective of the research is to examine conditions, manifestations and mechanisms of mobilization, the construction of collective identities and youth cultures, and politics of the respective youth movements. It is aimed to study a wide range of youth movements, representing different orientations of Islam, in the two mentioned countries.